I utilize a variety of laboratory instruments in my work. For example, a simple loupe magnifier , is often used to enlarge fine details in writing or printed text. If further magnification is used, a microscope is very useful in examining printing processes, ink strokes, security features and other document features. Another instrument of value in resolving cases is an instrument designed to recover indented writing. Think of having two or more pages stacked together. As you write on the top page, indentations of the writing are made onto the following page s due to pen pressure. The paper fiber disturbances are targeted by the instrument.
Photofading of ballpoint dyes studied on paper by LDI and MALDI MS
History[ edit ] The last remnant of old ownership marks The Vinland map first came to light in three years before the discovery of the Norse site at L’Anse aux Meadows in , bound in a slim volume with a short medieval text called the Hystoria Tartarorum usually called in English The Tartar Relation , and was unsuccessfully offered to the British Museum by London book dealer Irving Davis on behalf of a Spanish-Italian dealer named Enzo Ferrajoli de Ry.
Witten II , who offered it to his alma mater, Yale University. It was initially treated with suspicion, partly because wormholes in the map and the Relation did not match. In spring , however, Witten’s friend Thomas Marston, a Yale librarian, acquired from London book dealer Irving Davis a dilapidated medieval copy of volume 3 of Vincent of Beauvais ‘s encyclopedic Speculum historiale “Historical Mirror” , which turned out to be the missing link; the wormholes showing that it had formerly had the map at its beginning and the Relation at its end.
All traces of former ownership marks, except for a small part of a bright pink stamp which overlapped the writing on folio of the Speculum, had been removed, perhaps to avoid tax liability for the former owner although as historian Kirsten Seaver noted many years later, stamps on random book pages indicate institutional, not private ownership.
1 Ink, Paint, Paper Analysis Chapters 11, 12 14 Documents • “Questioned Documents” are documents that are suspected to be forgeries. • Scientific analysis can sometimes.
For two years he persisted in trying to identify the writer of this note, collecting handwriting specimens from a number of likely places and submitting them for laboratory comparison. Some of them matched the original. The points of venue of these marked the writer’s trail through several trouble-ridden countries, but none identified him.
Finally, back in his own country, the traveler wrote to one of the prospectively useful acquaintances he had made on the trip, and this correspondent was careless enough to let the letter fall into our intelligence officer’s hands. Verified as the same handwriting, it gave a complete name and home address. A search of visa records and other materials on file now yielded the true identity of the writer, his cover story, background, and even photographs of him.
He is a Soviet intelligence officer, who since then, thanks to this identification, has unwittingly kept us informed by his presence of certain activities of his organization. For twelve years, beginning during World War II, an agent in Europe had provided generous and significant reports from around and behind the iron curtain.
Ink and Paper Analysis / Trace Evidence / Questioned Document Examination
Brunelle worked for both the government and the private sector as a forensic chemist for almost forty years, specializing in document authentication and ink analysis. Brunelle’s expertise led him to write two successful books on the subject. He also served as a consultant on many criminal cases. Brunelle began his career as a forensic chemist for the Forensic Science Laboratory at the U.
He worked with the ATF for twenty-eight years, holding various positions including the chief of the Forensic Science Laboratory.
The technical analysis and identification of pigments such as, ink, paint and materials The identification and dating of paper The identification and dating of the grounds & supports upon which the work of art is produced canvas, panel, board et al.
We offer over 37 years of experience and training in a wide range of forensic science and private investigation disciplines. We specialize in ink dating, handwriting, art dating, questioned document examinations, fraud detection and forensic analysis. Stewart was born in Asheville, North Carolina. Stewart has worked for the U. Government as a forensic scientist for over 25 years.
During that time he has worked on many notable cases to include; the Unabomber, the John Wilkes Booth diary, numerous accused Nazi war criminals, e. Ivan the Terrible, the reinvestigation of the Dr. Additionally, he has been called upon to examine and assist in determining the authenticity of various historic constructions and sculptures to include pieces of Nok Terra Cotta, Mammoth Ivory, and Brazzerville and Songye Tribal Horns as well as various paintings and porcelains to include works potentially by Dahl, Picasso, Kandinsky, Cezanne, DeKooning, Kliun, Popova, Lissitzky, Malevich and Hopper.
His efforts have directly assisted the U. He has testified as an expert witness in state, federal and military courts of law, as well as testified or been deposed in foreign court systems to include; Austria, Australia, Canada, Germany, Sri Lanka, and Thailand. He has also testified at The Hague in the Netherlands and three times before the U.
In that role, he managed up to scientists, technicians, and support staff in the areas of document analysis, handwriting, fingerprints, trace evidence, audio and video analysis, photography, toolmarks, computer evidence and counterfeit analysis. Our goal is to provide efficient examination of evidence in order to help you find the truth. We are a worldwide operation.
Paper & Ink Examination
New York Areas of Expertise: Document examinations are provided in Massachusetts Areas of Expertise:
Among the existing approaches, the analysis of solvents in ballpoint inks may be a useful parameter for determining the age of ink on paper. In recent years, several ink dating methods have been proposed.
This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access Notes Acknowledgments H. Analysis of questioned documents: Acta , — CrossRef Google Scholar 2. Acta , — CrossRef Google Scholar 3. Investigation of falsified documents via direct analyte-probed nanoextraction coupled to nanospray mass spectrometry, fluorescence microscopy, and Raman spectroscopy.
Analyst , — CrossRef Google Scholar 4. Near infrared hyperspectral imaging for forensic analysis of document forgery.
Evidence may not be visible to the naked eye Ink Testing and Paper Examinations How can ink analysis and paper examinations help determine when a document was produced? The chemical analysis of writing and printing inks, as well as paper, can be invaluable when trying to prove whether a document is fraudulent. Ink dating is a highly specialized forensic examination and considered to be one of the most accurate and reliable methods to help determine the age of a document.
Ink Dating and Ink Aging An ink formulation can be identified to a specific manufacturer to ascertain the first date of commercial availability. If an entry is dated in , but the ink was not available until then the document could not have been created in Inks contain chemical solvents that evaporate and generally go through a drying process that can last up to 2 years.
forensic labs for all your forensic analysis and forensic testing such as, forensic testing, forensic labs, DNA testing, DNA forensics, presumptive testing, saliva testing, bood testing, STR testing, short tandem, y chromosome testing, mitochondrial DNA, mitochondrial DNA testing.
Indirect dating is based on the chemical analysis of an ink followed by comparison with known samples in a reference collection. The collection should contain information about the inks including the market introduction dates. This approach may allow for an anachronism to be detected. The second concept is based on measuring ink components that change with age. The analysis of solvents in ballpoint inks may be a useful parameter for determining the age of ink on paper. In a previous study, the authors demonstrated that thermal desorption of ink directly from paper, followed by chemical analysis using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry GC-MS , is a promising procedure for characterizing ink-binder resins and solvents.
Preliminary tests showed that monitoring the evaporation of ink solvent from ink on paper is not a suitable method for ink dating. Thermal analysis of ink on paper in two steps revealed that fresh ink releases a relative amount of solvent at a certain low temperature in a defined period of time, which decreases as the ink ages. As a consequence, this relative amount of solvent released at a certain low temperature, and its decrease with time, can be used to estimate ink age. This age-dependent parameter was studied in 85 different inks ranging in age from 1 week to 1.
It was found that some inks showed a significant decrease of this parameter up to an age of several months, and that the aging process can be monitored within this period. For other inks, however, the age-dependent parameter decreases relatively fast, e. Based on these results, a general procedure for assessing the age of ballpoint pen inks on paper was developed.
FAQ Can you determine the date of preparation of a document containing either handwritten notations or signatures? Yes, with certain limitations. We can determine the first date of commercial availability of the ink used to prepare any handwritten or handprinted material. The type of ink does not preclude this examination. If the initial date of commercial availability is more recent than the supposed date of the examined writing, then the document is not what it purports.
Robert D. Blackledge, ed., Ink Analysis Using UV Laser Desorption Mass Spectrometry, Forensic Analysis on the Cutting Edge: New Methods for Trace Evidence Analysis (Wiley-Interscience July ). Advances in the Forensic Analysis and Dating of Writing Ink (Charles C. Thomas ).
Enter Characters from Left: The first ink dating method is the static approach, which determines when the ink being examined was manufactured. The second ink dating method is the dynamic approach, this method is to determine when the writing occurred, or in simple terms, how long the ink has been on the paper. The ink dating static approach is typically more useful as the difference between the date on the document and the present time increases.
Several different tests exist in this form of ink dating. These ink dating methods include the comparison of the examined ink to a known library of standards, commonly called the library approach, the detection of chemical date tags placed in the ink purposefully by the manufacturer, commonly called the date tag method, and also the determination of the type of ink writing instrument used.
The determination of the type of writing instrument is probably the oldest method of ink dating. This ink dating method primarily involves microscopic examinations and can also incorporate some basic chemical solubility testing. Some examinations can be performed on fountain pens to determine type of nib, type of ink and the first date of introduction of each of these. However, since this is a very small portion of the actual type of cases seen, we will concentrate primarily on more recent developments.
Other pages discuss the use of infrared to discriminate the differences between inks that visually and microscopically look identical.
Brunelle, Richard L.
Abstract Carbon-based black gel inks are common samples in forensic practice of questioned document examination in China, but there are few analytical methods for this type of ink. In this study, a liquid chromatography—. The coupled instruments achieve both the identification and quantification of PEG oligomers in ink entries with reproducible results.
Dating were dating app where you find the purpose of ink dating-the state of documents is expanding. Forensic analysis using three interpretation models on solvents analysis of the dating of company focused on office furniture, fraud and testify regarding ink dating, software.
Identification of ink is possible by thin layer chromatography fingerprinting. Thin layer chromatography TLC is a technique for making a color graph of the individual components of any ink. Most commercial inks, especially from ball-point pens are actually mixtures of several organic dyes Saferstein, These dyes can be separated on a TLC plate. TLC requires using a thin glass plate that is uniformly covered with silica gel.
A drop of ink is placed at the bottom of the TLC plate; the plate is set into a solvent. The solvent will wick up the TLC plate by capillary action.
Handwriting Analysis Expert Witnesses in North Carolina
View Full Document layer chromatography. To help forensic chemists in ink-dating matters, several ink manufacturers voluntarily tag their inks during the manufacturing process so that the ink will be dated to the exact year of manufacture. These manufacturers change their tags annually to prevent fraudulent backdating of inks. Document examiners must also look at the type of paper on which a document is written or printed on.
Handwriting Analysis Expert, Forensic Art Dating, Questioned Documents, Ink Age, Fraud and Forensic Analysis. Global Forensic Services, LLC (GFS) (formerly Stewart Forensic Consultants) is a forensic laboratory, consulting and investigative firm.
With this method the forensic analysis determines the components in the ink, compares them against a library of standards and then allows an opinion regarding the first date that particular ink was manufactured commercially available. The dynamic approach is very useful in determining if a pen ink was placed on a document on its purported date, i. There are only a handful of forensic scientists capable of performing these tests and laboratories equipped with the proper tools.
What are the typical ink analysis procedures? Forensic ink testing is performed on Original Documents and may include: The proposed tests are minimally invasive, the latter two involving the placement of pinhole perforations in the text, paper and signatures on the Original Document. The pinholes themselves are not typically easily visible unless the document is held up to light, and the testing has no negative effect on handwriting analysis.
All of the proposed testing follows Court approved testing methods, e.
In Depth Tutorials and Information Ink Analysis Introduction Chemical and physical analysis of inks on questioned documents provides valuable information regarding their authenticity. Comparison of these chemical and physical properties of two or more inks can determine: When dating tags are detected, it is possible to determine the actual year or years when the ink was manufactured.
Dating tags are unique chemicals that have been added to ball-point inks by some ink companies as a way to determine the year the ink was made. Relative age comparison tests performed on inks of the same formula and written on the same type of paper with the same storage conditions performed by measuring changing solubility properties of inks can estimate how long inks have been written on paper. This is done by:
DOCUFRAUD is a Canadian division of Criminal Case Consultants. We provide forensic document examination to individuals, public and private companies, banks, insurance companies, law firms, law enforcement agencies, accounting firms, investigative agencies, art houses, investors, investment firms, private lenders, government agencies, school boards, universities, regulatory bodies, and trade.
Ink Dating and Paper Analysis Evidence may not be visible to the naked eye Ink Testing and Paper Examinations How can ink analysis and paper examinations help determine when a document was produced? The chemical analysis of writing and printing inks, as well as paper, can be invaluable when trying to prove whether a document is fraudulent. Ink dating is a highly specialized forensic examination and considered to be one of the most accurate and reliable methods to help determine the age of a document.
Ink Dating and Ink Aging An ink formulation can be identified to a specific manufacturer to ascertain the first date of commercial availability. If an entry is dated in , but the ink was not available until then the document could not have been created in Inks contain chemical solvents that evaporate and generally go through a drying process that can last up to 2 years. Comparing Writing Inks Chemical analysis can be conducted on a suspicious entry to determine if it is consistent with other associated or surrounding writings.