Under an Elsevier user license open access Abstract Attenuated total reflectance ATR Fourier transform infrared FTIR spectroscopy associated to linear discriminant analysis LDA was employed to perform classification of blue pen ink according to types and brands, in a nondestructive way. To build a representative data set, blue pens of 3 types, namely ballpoint 5 brands , roller ball 2 brands and gel 3 brands were purchased from local dealers. Ten different pens, representing the best seller of each brand, were purchased, making a total of pens. Three types of paper were employed: LDA models were built using the blue pen ink spectra obtained from paper 1. Three test sets were employed using the blue pen ink spectra obtained from papers 1, 2 and 3, in order to evaluate the influence of the paper on the predictions. Using SW, the rate achieved was
Dating of Documents
This post contains affiliate links. Other then that — you just need the printables. I have them linked up below in the steps where you will need them. I like to use this site to find mine but there are all sorts of websites out there that showcase song lyrics.
90 Origami Tattoo Designs For Men – Folded Paper Ink Ideas Origami tattoos offer revitalized charm to any array of ink. These Asian masterpieces are supremely ravishing and fantastically down-to-earth.
As Berge noted in referring to bottles, the ” This bottle dating “key” is a relatively simple “first cut” on the dating of a bottle. Please be aware that in order to gain the maximum information about any particular bottle e. Unfortunately, the complexities of precisely dating bottles is beyond the scope of any simple key. A substantial amount of bottle type specific information must be reviewed by a user to increase the probability of dating accuracy. Additional reference materials outside of this website must often be consulted to narrow down the date of any item as far as is possible and to really get a “feel” for the history of the bottle in question.
A Rose for Emily
Enter Characters from Left: The first ink dating method is the static approach, which determines when the ink being examined was manufactured. The second ink dating method is the dynamic approach, this method is to determine when the writing occurred, or in simple terms, how long the ink has been on the paper. The ink dating static approach is typically more useful as the difference between the date on the document and the present time increases. Several different tests exist in this form of ink dating.
Dating paper ink Chat room sex talk Aug Avoid using lined paper to write your invisible message, for the same you reveal the message depends on the ink you invisible inks are made visible by heating the g the paper or holding it over a watt bulb are easy ways to reveal these types of messages.
Antique Ink Bottles An ink bottle was made of glass and typically sat on a desk. The writer would dip the pen or quill into the bottle to put more ink on the pen. Because they set on a desk, ink bottles were often decorative. Ink wells as opposed to “ink bottles” were typically metal with a glass insert, often ornate, and sat on a desk. The larger master ink pint or quart size was used to store ink and refill the smaller ink wells.
Ink bottles were shaped so they were hard to tip over. Inks come in many different shapes: Cone inks were used from the early s to early s. They often come in a variety of colors as shown in photo below: Umbrella inks were a “fluted-cone stand”, with eight connecting panels to form the sides; they were used from s to s. Pontilled umbrella inks in fancy colors are some of the most expensive inks sought by collectors. Hexagonal and octagonal ink bottles were used Igloos or Turtles were used
Antique Ink Bottles
Preparing manuscripts[ edit ] Once the vellum is prepared, traditionally a quire is formed of a group of several sheets. Raymond Clemens and Timothy Graham point out, in their Introduction to Manuscript Studies, that “the quire was the scribe’s basic writing unit throughout the Middle Ages”. They note “‘pricking’ is the process of making holes in a sheet of parchment or membrane in preparation of its ruling.
The lines were then made by ruling between the prick marks The process of entering ruled lines on the page to serve as a guide for entering text. Most manuscripts were ruled with horizontal lines that served as the baselines on which the text was entered and with vertical bounding lines that marked the boundaries of the columns”.
Dating of black gel pen ink using the dissolution-diffusion method. Li B(1). Author information: It was also determined that brands of gel inks, types of paper and thickness of gel ink strokes had varying impacts on estimating the dates of gel ink strokes. Experimental results showed that dissolution-diffusion method was applicable for.
Generate a file for use with external citation management software. Create File Forensic Sci Int. Epub Nov Dating of black gel pen ink using the dissolution-diffusion method. Abstract In many criminal and civil cases in China, the most commonly questioned documents are those written with gel pen ink. An important task for forensic document examiners is to identify whether two or more ink entries in one or more documents were written with the same ink type.
The identification of the age of gel ink entries made poses an important and difficult problem for forensic document examiners. In this paper, a dissolution-diffusion method was successfully employed to estimate the relative age of gel ink entries by comparing dissolution-diffusion rates. Using extensive tests, the mixed solution of dimethyl formamide DMF and anhydrous ethanol proved to be a suitable solvent and was used to dissolve the dye of gel ink strokes made at different times.
As preliminary findings of this study, calibration curves were created to indicate the relationship between the average dissolution-diffusion rate of soluble gel ink components and the age of gel ink entries stored under natural aging conditions.
History of paper
Guide to Real Photo Postcards This guide is meant to aid the collector in identifying and dating real photo postcards, and to act as a reminder that it is impossible to do so with great accuracy. Although real photo postcards were made in a variety of ways, they hold one identifiable feature in common. The tonalities of photos are completely continuous to the eye producing true greys, for they are created by the reaction of individual photosensitive molecules to light rather than the transfer of ink from a plate.
In printed images the grey areas are usually made up of black marks that are spaced to create the optical illusion of greys. Though most of us today are familiar with the concept of photo grain, this is mostly because we have experienced very large prints made from small 35mm negatives. But even here the effect is more of a softening of detail than a observable texture.
WHATMAN Hand Made Paper This antique book was made around with It is blank with around 90 pages hand bound in a leather binding. This Journal contains a fine texture wove paper is sized for ink, sketching, or watercolor.
Keith Ray surveys the four great Chinese inventions that have changed the World. Over thousands of years China has produced a great stream of inventions, ranging from the mundane chopstick and wheelbarrow, to sophisticated earthquake detectors and the advanced concept of bank notes. But in China there are four inventions traditionally referred to as the Four Great Inventions. These are paper, gunpowder, the compass and printing.
Paper Interestingly the word ‘paper’ is derived from ‘papyrus’. Around 2, BC the Egyptians in the lower Nile region discovered that a type of reed, papyrus, could be formed into a writing surface by overlapping thin strips which had been soaked for a long time in water, and then pounding and pressing it into a sheet. But it wasn’t really paper as we know it, and it was difficult to write on, and expensive.
Usage[ edit ] Traditional East Asian ink is solidified into inksticks. Usually, some water is applied onto the inkstone by means of a dropper to control the amount of water before the bottom end of the inkstick is placed on the grinding surface and then gradually ground to produce the ink. More water is gradually added during the grinding process to increase the amount of ink produced, the excess flowing down into the reservoir of the inkstone where it will not evaporate as quickly as on the flat grinding surface, until e nough ink has been produced for the purpose in question.
The Chinese grind their ink in a circu lar motion with the end flat on the surface whilst the Japanese push one edge of the end of the inkstick back and forth. Water can be stored in a water-holding cavity on the inkstone itself, as was the case for many Song Dynasty — inkstones.
Provide you while using paper facts for any essay or dissertation you need to get (topic, amount of webpages, citation or even referencing type, for example.), Ensure that you go away a person’s friends (e-mail and call quantity) in addition to expect to be given a response from us really short time.
Parker 45 Colors, Dating a Parker 45 and Parker 45 Identification Menu Welcome Dating A Pen Dating a pre Parker 45 usually involves a little detective work and the results can be rather general to say the least, giving a rough idea rather then a specific date. Check for a date code on the side of the cap. If the pen is boxed with paperwork in the box check the paperwork for a sale date.
This will tell us when the pen was sold, not when it was made. Some earlier US pens had a date code on the box indicating the year of manufacture. Model — Some models date from specific years or had identifying features during certain time periods. Colors — some colors were not made until after a specific date. Example 1 Looking at the pen we have a Parker 45 Coronet in Green complete with box and paper work.
We know that the Coronet was first manufactured in so this alone would give a rough date of to Next we look at the box. The box label matches up with the pen and underneath the pad we find the paperwork. Best of all the Registration Form specifies that the form is for. Everything appears to tie in so we can quite confidently say that this is a pen. This time there is no date on the Guarantee form so we only have the box and pen to go by.
Dating of black gel pen ink using the dissolution-diffusion method.
Do you need sex without any obligations? Joseph Mallord William Turner, R. So with artist attributions, it is essential to examine this issue first and foremost.
ink dating ink dating Offices: San Luis Obispo, Forensic Ink Dating is the chemical analysis of inks to determine the age of the ink on paper, or the date of introduction of the ink used on a particular document. trial testimony, legal reports and coink dating.
It was a big, squarish frame house that had once been white, decorated with cupolas and spires and scrolled balconies in the heavily lightsome style of the seventies, set on what had once been our most select street. But garages and cotton gins had encroached and obliterated even the august names of that neighborhood; only Miss Emily’s house was left, lifting its stubborn and coquettish decay above the cotton wagons and the gasoline pumps-an eyesore among eyesores.
And now Miss Emily had gone to join the representatives of those august names where they lay in the cedar-bemused cemetery among the ranked and anonymous graves of Union and Confederate soldiers who fell at the battle of Jefferson. Alive, Miss Emily had been a tradition, a duty, and a care; a sort of hereditary obligation upon the town, dating from that day in when Colonel Sartoris, the mayor–he who fathered the edict that no Negro woman should appear on the streets without an apron-remitted her taxes, the dispensation dating from the death of her father on into perpetuity.
Not that Miss Emily would have accepted charity. Colonel Sartoris invented an involved tale to the effect that Miss Emily’s father had loaned money to the town, which the town, as a matter of business, preferred this way of repaying. Only a man of Colonel Sartoris’ generation and thought could have invented it, and only a woman could have believed it.
When the next generation, with its more modern ideas, became mayors and aldermen, this arrangement created some little dissatisfaction. On the first of the year they mailed her a tax notice. February came, and there was no reply. They wrote her a formal letter, asking her to call at the sheriff’s office at her convenience.
A week later the mayor wrote her himself, offering to call or to send his car for her, and received in reply a note on paper of an archaic shape, in a thin, flowing calligraphy in faded ink, to the effect that she no longer went out at all.
Industrial Ink-Jet Printers
When World War I ended at the end of , the rate was lowered to its prewar level of one cent. The postal rate was raised briefly from 1 cent to 2 cents in and in ; the conclusive raise to 2 cents was in Commission Rate Board overestimated revenue needs in and was forced to reduce the postage rate in These were illustrations on government-printed postal cards and on privately printed souvenir cards. The government postal cards included a printed 1-cent stamp; the privately printed souvenir cards required a 2-cent adhesive postage stamp to be affixed.
The second ink dating method is the dynamic approach, this method is to determine when the writing occurred, or in simple terms, how long the ink has been on the ink dating static approach how accurate is ink dating is typically more useful as the difference between the date on the document and the present time this.
A paper with slight surface texture made by pressing the finished paper between cold cylinders. In between rough and hot pressed papers. A physically raised or depressed design in the paper. A super smooth, semi-transparent paper that is often used to make the envelopes that hold stamps Hand made Paper: Paper made by hand in individual sheets. A paper surface that is smooth.
Made by pressing a finished paper sheet through hot cylinders. An ancient form of paper made out of animal skin. It is smooth and semi-translucent Plate Finish:
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These Asian masterpieces are supremely ravishing and fantastically down-to-earth. The in-depth art of folding paper is a huge cultural export from Japan that has garnered appreciation in almost every single country. There are hundreds of different creations in the ancient art-form, and the chic magic is finally translating to ink. There is ample difficulty associated with the practice origami, so a tattoo of your favorite folded icon will represent true mastery over the challenging field.
Cute and funny comics with a pinch of biting humor.
Dating paper ink Chat room sex talk Aug How you reveal the message depends on the ink you used. Most invisible inks are made visible by heating the paper. Ironing the paper or holding it over a watt bulb are easy ways to reveal these types of messages. The Qianlong Emperor had his own imperial collection of inkstones catalogued into a twenty-four chapter compendium entitled Xiqing yanpu Hsi-ch’ing yen-p’u.
Many of these inkstones are housed in the National Palace Museum collection in Taipei. Most of them work using p H indicators, so when it doubt, paint or spray a suspected message with a base like sodium carbonate solution or an acid like lemon juice. Some of these inks will reveal their message when heated e. Stimulated by the social economy and culture, the demand for inkstones increased during the Tang Dynasty and reached its height in the Song Dynasty —